International Research Publications - Youth, Education and Employment

Young people and temporary employment in Europe
Argues that, while temporary or fixed-term contracts can be a stepping stone in the transition from education into work, they can also trap young people in insecure jobs.

Keeping young people in (vocational) education – what works?
Too many young people leave education (including vocational education) too soon. Yet early leavers are at greater risk of long – term unemployment, poverty and crime, and now cost the European economy 1.25% of GDP. This paper asks how this flow can be staunched.

Apprenticeship and Traineeship Schemes in EU27 – Key Success Factors, A Guidebook for Policy Planners and Practitioners
Presents an overview of definitions of apprenticeships and traineeships, together with their distinctive features and key differences. Presents brief overviews of the main representative apprenticeship and traineeship programmes in the European Union’s 27 Member States, and a review of available data on their effectiveness.

Working conditions of young entrants to the labour market
This comparative analytical report (CAR) describes and characterises the current working conditions of young European entrants to the labour market and the evolution of these working conditions in recent years, especially in the light of the current economic crisis.

Employment and social developments in Europe 2013
DG Employment builds on the first Employment and Social Developments in Europe (ESDE) Review in this second edition, by conducting an analysis of the economic and social situation in the EU.

The experience of traineeships in the EU
An analysis based on the Eurobarometer results found a significant correlation between the quality of traineeships and the employment outcome. In other words, those that had completed a substandard traineeship were significantly less likely to find a job afterwards.

Piloting a European employer survey on skill needs – illustrative findings
Presents results from a pilot survey in 2012 for identifying employers’ skill needs in nine Member States. It describes the measurement concept and survey methodology, and presents illustrative findings with some implications for future work. The approach’s practicability is assessed and options for moving on to a large-scale survey on employer skill needs in Europe are discussed.

Renewing VET provision – understanding feedback mechanisms between initial VET and the labour market
If vocational education and training (VET) is to contribute to economic recovery and sustainable development, it must respond to the changing needs of the labour market. This report examines 15 national approaches to ensuring feedback between VET and the labour market, and explores how transparent, inclusive and responsive these different solutions are.

Returns to skills around the world – evidence from PIAAC
Analysis of the new PIAAC survey of adult skills over the full lifecycle in 22 countries shows that the focus on early-career earnings leads to underestimating the lifetime returns to skills by about one quarter. On average, a one-standard-deviation increase in numeracy skills is associated with an 18 percent wage increase among prime-age workers. But this masks considerable heterogeneity across countries. Eight countries, including all Nordic countries, have returns between 12 and 15 percent, while six are above 21 percent with the largest return being 28 percent in the United States.

Education and training in Europe 2020 – responses from the EU member states
Presents a focused comparative analysis of national responses to the Europe 2020 priorities in the field of education and training. Concentrates on recent and forthcoming national reforms across several thematic areas that have a direct relevance to the Europe 2020 strategy: early school leaving, higher education, youth employment and vocational education and training and lifelong learning.