Government’s Response to Sir Andrew Witty’s Review of Universities and Growth

Government’s response to the Witty review of universities and growth sets out what the government will do to build on our outstanding global reputation for science and research. Explains how government is rising to Sir Andrew’s challenge through: making a long term commitment to supporting universities in their mission to deliver economic growth; drawing our national successes through to the local level by strengthening Local Enterprise Partnerships and helping universities to support small and medium enterprises (SMEs); taking forward the ‘Arrow Projects’ concept to secure the potential of the technologies of the future; and aligning support for different scientific fields with the priorities that are developed for technologies and sectors in the context of the government’s Industrial Strategy.

The impact of universities on the UK economy
Examines the higher education sector’s contribution to the UK economy in the academic year 2011–12, the latest for which figures were available at the time this research was commissioned. The report provides new figures following a similar study in 2009.

Industrial Strategy and the Future of Skills Policy
The Research Insight, produced for the CIPD by the Centre on Skills, Knowledge and Organisational Performance (SKOPE), explores the relationship between economic performance and skills and argues that an integrated strategy is essential to build a sustainable industrial strategy.

Jobs not Careers
Tracks the experience of 80 women over a three-year period as they negotiated a return to work after motherhood. Increasing the maternal employment rate is increasingly recognised as a critical policy issue.

You’re next – will technology make professional jobs redundant?
Discusses the risk that artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics technologies could make professional jobs redundant. Highlights the work of the Narrative Science company in the field of ‘smart machines’, and looks at why the book ‘The second machine age’ says ‘technology is on the cusp of exploding’, based on the views of leading academics and thinkers across this field.

Secondary analysis of the gender pay gap – changes in the gender pay gap over time
Presents the findings of research which examined changes in the gender pay gap over time, drawing on data from the Office for National Statistics’ Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE). Explains that the gender pay gap refers to the difference between men’s earnings and women’s earnings as a percentage of men’s earnings, and notes that the measure of the gender pay gap used in this analysis is median gross hourly earnings excluding overtime.

Community learning learner survey: Wave 2
Explores the outcomes of those who took part in a community learning (CL) course in England between July 2011 and February 2012. Explains that CL describes a wide range of classes and learning activities, mostly uncredited, which bring together adults of different ages and backgrounds to acquire a new skill, reconnect with learning, prepare for progression to formal courses, or learn how to support their children more confidently.

An international comparison of apprentice pay – final report
An investigation by the Low Pay Commission in to the level of apprenticeship pay across fourteen countries. A detailed explanation of the nature of the educational structure in each of the countries; the incidence of vocational training and apprenticeships; apprenticeship structure; and the funding of vocational training and apprenticeships.

Hungarian Migrants in the UK Labour Market
In May 2004, eight East European countries (A8)1 became members of the EU. The UK was one of the three countries, together with Ireland and Sweden, that granted the new Europeans immediate and free access to their labour markets. As a result, a large number of work-seekers arrived in the UK. Between April 2004 and March 2005, 116,840 A8 citizens requested a national insurance number (Department for Work and Pensions 2012). The new arrivals have received significant attention from politicians, the media, the public at large, and researchers. This Issue Paper explores the views and experiences of 10 Hungarian migrants living in the south-east of England.

The Contribution of Regions to Aggregate Growth in the OECD
Investigates the contribution of regions to aggregate growth in the OECD. We find a great degree of heterogeneity in the performance of OECD TL3 regions and among the OECD regional typology (urban, intermediate and rural). While the distribution in GDP and GDP per capita growth rates follows an approximately normal distribution, the regional contributions to aggregate growth follow a power law, with a coefficient around 1.2 (in absolute terms). This implies that Few-Large (FL) regions contribute disproportionately to aggregate growth whereas Many-Small (MS) individual regions contribute only marginally. Nevertheless, because the number of these smaller regions is very large and the decay of their contribution to growth is slow (generating a fat tail distribution), their cumulated contribution is actually around 2/3 of aggregate growth.

A New Measure of Skills Mismatch – Theory and Evidence from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)
Proposes a new measure of skills mismatch that combines information about skill proficiency, self-reported mismatch and skill use. The theoretical foundations underling this measure allow identifying minimum and maximum skill requirements for each occupation and to classify workers into three groups, the well-matched, the under-skilled and the over-skilled. The availability of skill use data further permit the computation of the degree of under and overusage of skills in the economy. The empirical analysis is carried out using the first wave of the OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) and the findings are compared across skill domains, labour market status and countries.

A review of occupational regulation and its impact
Occupational regulation has been sorely under researched, particularly in the UK and Europe. This research, conducted by the National Institute of Economic and Social Research, provides us with greater understanding. It introduces a sophisticated conceptual definition of occupational regulation; maps its different forms in the UK; and produces estimates on its prevalence and impact. The report also provides a discussion on the economic theory of occupational regulation and presents existing evidence on its nature and impact from the UK and further afield.